Commentary 1990

The argument sketched in section 8.5 was expanded in the following note, planned for inclusion in a still unfinished study entitled: The Metaphysics of Constructed Models. It may be noted how my understanding of Bertrand Russell's discussion is supported by my first hand experience with empirical astronomy, cf. section 10.2 Computations of Special Perturbations by an Electronic Calculator.


Accepting Bertrand Russell's conclusion that causes have no place in advanced sciences, such as physics, it is argued that causes are perfectly meaningful in contexts in which a circumstance of the world is seen by some person as unexpected or unintended. Again, far from being inherent in the situation, the cause of the unexpected or unintended circumstance is an item or issue of the situation that by the person is understood to be subject to intentional human intervention, so as to avoid or remove the circumstance.