E. Sveinsdottir and E. Frøkjær (eds.). Bibliography of Peter Naur, DIKU-rapport 88/22, 35 p.
Including Supplement - Version 2002 maj 6

Bibliography of Peter Naur

Preface 3

Biography 5

On the Contributions of Peter Naur to the Computer Field 7

Bibliography of Scientific and Technical Writings 11

What one shall do is to name the things.
One shall call them by their names.
I name the eye.
I name the foot, I name my dog's head on my knees.
I name the knees ... naming.
That is all. That is enough.

Pablo Picasso, 1964-65


This booklet contains a bibliography of the scientific and technical
writings of Peter Naur. We have included a short biography, quoting the
document presented with the Computer Pioneer Award of the IEEE Computer
Society for Peter Naur in 1986, and given a survey of Peter Naur's
contributions to the field of computer science or datalogi, as we say in
Denmark. We hope the bibliography will help more people to get acquainted
with the writings of Peter Naur.
We thank Peter Naur and librarian Birthe Hougaard from the Institute of
Datalogy at Copenhagen University (DIKU) for help with the references. As
many of the writings can be difficult to get hold of, we have assembled an
almost complete set of copies placed at the library of DIKU.

October 1988
E. Sveinsdottir and E. Frøkjær


Peter Naur was born in Frederiksberg near Copenhagen, Denmark, on October
25, 1928. While still in high school, he developed an interest in
astronomy, and with the guidance of the staff of the Copenhagen University
Observatory worked on calculations of the orbits of comets and minor
planets. He began his academic studies at Copenhagen University in 1947,
getting his mag. scient. degree in Astronomy in 1949.
He spent the year 1950-51 as Research Student at King's College, Cambridge,
England. There he designed a program for the EDSAC for calculating the
perturbed motions of minor planets. The years 1952-53 was spent in the USA,
with visits to a number of astronomical observatories and computer
development laboratories, followed by a second stay at Cambridge, England.
From 1953 to 1959 he was scientific assistant at Copenhagen Observatory,
and also served as consultant in the areas of assembly language and
debugging aids to the independent computer laboratory, Regnecentralen, on
the development of the first Danish computer, Dask. He received his Ph.D.
in Astronomy in 1957.
Dr. Naur joined the staff of Regnecentralen in 1959 to specialize in the
area of high level languages and then became heavily involved in the
international development of Algol 60. He organized the Algol Bulletin and
became one of the thirteen international scientists who produced the final
design of Algol 60 in 1960. He was appointed editor of the group's report
on the language, Report on the Algorithmic Language ALGOL 60.
As member of the compiler design group of Regnecentralen, Dr. Naur
contributed to the design of compilers for Algol 60 and Cobol characterized
by their effective use of multipass techniques. This experience led to an
interest in the basic principles of data processing, and the book, Concise
Survey of Computer Methods, published in 1974.
In more recent years he has been active in studying program development as
a human activity, retaining a sceptical attitude towards the claims made
for methods and formalizations in this field.
He has been co-editor of the Nordic journal BIT since its start in 1960.
Dr. Naur also served as president of Dansk Selskab for Datalogi until 1982
since its founding in 1966, and he was co-editor of the report on the first
conference on Software Engineering in 1968.
Since 1969 Peter Naur has been professor at the Copenhagen University
Institute of Datalogy.
He was honored with the G. A. Hagemann Medal in 1963, the Jens Rosenkjær
Prize in 1966, and the Computer Pioneer Award of the IEEE Computer Society
in 1986.

Quotation from the document presented with
the Computer Pioneer Award of the IEEE Computer Society in 1986.

On the Contributions of Peter Naur to the Computer Field

Peter Naur has over the years brought outstanding contributions to the
computer field, especially within software development methodology and
language design. Through his research he has deepened our understanding of
computing and reached a number of practical results of lasting importance.
First Peter Naur's contribution to the development of the Algol language
should be emphasized. The importance of the Algol 60 development in the
history of computer science is indisputable, Algol 60 representing a
milestone in the development of programming languages, both in terms of
concepts introduced and the use of a formal notation for syntax, now known
as the Backus-Naur form (BNF), introduced by J.W. Backus and given a final
form in the Report on the Algorithmic Language ALGOL 60 [95]. Most
theoretical and much practical language and compiler work since 1960 has
been based on Algol 60. Let us call Peter Naur's special contribution to
this development to mind through John Backus's expression at a conference
in 1978 on the history of programming languages: "One last thing I'd like
to add is that Peter Naur's conduct of the Algol Bulletin and his
incredible preparation for that Paris meeting in which Algol was all
written down already in his notebook - he changed it a little bit in
accordance with the wishes of the committee, but it was that stuff that
really made Algol the language that it is, and it wouldn't have even come
about, I don't think, had he not done that." [298]
When Algol 60 was produced Peter Naur was a computer-oriented astronomer,
recently switched fully to computing. The design of Algol 60 was followed
immediately by his participation at Regnecentralen in the development of
compilers, for Algol 60, in several versions, for several computers, during
the years 1960 to 1967, and for Cobol during 1963-65. Also this work is of
a pioneering character. The Gier-Algol compiler - called a masterpiece by
E. W. Dijkstra - was based on viable ideas, such as automatic storage
allocation during program execution (later known as paging), multipass
translation, and pseudoevaluation of expressions [141]. A number of
brilliant programmers and scientists were brought up at this outstanding
programming milieu at Regnecentralen, among others Per Brinch Hansen [I,II].
Building upon this experience, from about 1965 Naur saw the solutions
developed by the group at Regnecentralen as examples of methods of wider
applicability. Hence originated the text, written in 1966, of Plan for et
kursus i datalogi og datamatik [181], a paper given at IFIP 1968 [205],
repeated by invitation at ACM'68 National Conference, and the book, from
1974, Concise Survey of Computer Methods [264]. Naur's notion of computer
science, understood as the science of the nature and use of data, more
properly denoted datalogy, was original and contemporary with other early
attempts to identify the new field. Thus G. Forsythe [III] was in line with
Naur when emphasizing the importance of extracting and teaching the essence
of computer science. Naur's ideas became directly effective when an
independent curriculum of datalogy was established at Copenhagen
University, where a chair of datalogy was set up in 1969, with Naur as the
first professor, by invitation. This tradition of computer science
education is characteristic, first and foremost, by its maintenance of
close connection with applications and other fields of knowledge.
Comprehensive project activity is an integral part of the curriculum, thus
presenting theory as an aspect of realistic solutions known primarily
through actual experience obtained under active guidance from researchers
and more advanced students. Under sometimes hard conditions a vigorous and
effective computer science educational milieu with obvious professional
qualities has been created. An account of the ideas behind datalogy as it
has been practiced at the Copenhagen University Institute of Datalogy is
given in [IV].
However, in Naur's view this approach to computer science can be difficult
to maintain. Though highly problematic, a widening split between the more
academic, pure computer science oriented study of programming languages and
the world of practical programming can be expected to persist indefinitely.
Such problems among others are closely treated in [277]. Here Naur gives a
suggestive illumination of some social aspects of programming, drawing on
similar historical experiences within natural languages and mathematics,
the two closest relatives to programming among the intellectual disciplines.
For Naur an all-pervasive theme has been the study of programming and
system development conceived as a human activity. This orientation is
visible in his early contributions to the understanding of problems and
techniques in program construction and verification. A fine example is The
Place of Programming in a World of Problems, Tools and People, presented at
the IFIP Congress 1965 [167]. Again we find original views from Peter Naur.
In 1963, before anybody else, he wrote about a number of unfavourable
effects of the unrestricted use of go to statements [144]. Donald Knuth
tells the story in his paper Structured programming with go to statements
[V]. Naur was among the first to realize the need for more reliable and
maintainable programming. In the paper Proof of algorithms by general
snapshots [182] the fundamental technique of invariants in program
verification was discussed under Naur's term general snapshots; according
to D. Gries actually the first article on proving programs correct [VI]. In
close relation to the proof problem, the problem of program construction
gave rise to the suggestion by Naur [219] that in order to establish the
connection between the requirements to be satisfied by the program and the
program itself, it should be possible to join logically related statements
together to form action clusters. For this to be done effectively, the
programming language should include special clauses for delimiting the
clusters. This is a line of work that David L. Parnas and N. Wirth have
developed through their ideas on modular programming.
Peter Naur has also contributed to a deeper understanding of the serious
and varied problems connected to design, production and service of large
software systems, now treated under the term software engineering - a term
coined at the conference in Garmisch Partenkirchen held in October 1968
[212]. This conference created a sensation by the first open admission of
the software crisis, as mentioned by Dijkstra [VII].
Still to day our profession has serious problems in meeting the demands for
more and better software systems. According to Naur we shall not expect
these difficulties to be overcome mainly through new methods in software
development. This is one of the conclusions in the paper Programming as
Theory Building, where a thorough treatment of programming viewed as a
human activity is given [312]. Instead the key issue in programming
".. is to have the programmers build a theory of the way the matters at
hand may be supported by the execution of a program. Such a view leads to a
notion of program life that depends on the continued support of the program
by programmers having its theory. Further, on this view the notion of a
programming method, understood as a set of rules of procedure to be
followed by the programmer, is based on invalid assumptions and so has to
be rejected. As further consequences of the view, programmers have to be
accorded the status of responsible, permanent developers and managers of
the activity of which the computer is a part, and their education has to
emphasize the exercise of theory building, side by side with the
acquisition of knowledge of data processing and notations." [312]

It is on this fundamental view on programming, founded in a number of
empirical studies of programmers [270, 296, 304, 322], that Peter Naur has
based his penetrating critique of central topics within computer science.
Here we emphasize the following:
* The ideas on structured programming as they were originally put
forward by E. W. Dijkstra and N. Wirth. To Naur the ideas didn't seem right
as a guidance for the programmer during problem solving. Program
development styles should allow for personality factors and Naur asked for
more observations [253]. In 1976 Peter J. Denning was able to give the
subject a more complete treatment [VIII].
* The different proposals of software life-cycle models. As an
alternative Naur points to an approach where the development problems of
large data systems are regarded as primarily one of overall design to be
obtained through an experimental attitude [264].
* The widespread expectations in the scientific community to formal
methods as an answer to the continued problems in software development.
Naur emphasizes that only formal specifications which contribute by
supporting the intuitive understanding of the matter at hand can be
recommended [302, 315].
* The notion often found within artificial intelligence research or
cognitive science that the human mind works in a rule governed manner like
an information processor. This leads to naive expectations of the
possibilities to control or replace human activity by computers [313, 316].


I P. Brinch Hansen, The nucleus of a multiprogramming system, Comm.
ACM, Vol. 13, no. 4, 1970, pp. 238-241, 250.

II P. Brinch Hansen and R. House, The Cobol Compiler for the Siemens
3003, BIT, Vol. 6, no. 1, 1966, pp.1-23.

III G. Forsythe, A University's Educational Program in Computer
Science, Comm. ACM, Vol. 10, no. 1, 1967.

IV Sveinsdottir and E. Frøkjær, Datalogy - the Copenhagen Tradition
of Computer Science, BIT, Vol. 28, no. 3, 1988, pp. 450-472.

V D. E. Knuth, Structured Programming With go to Statements. In R.
T. Yeh (ed.): Current Trends in Programming Methodology, Vol. I, Software
Specification and Design, Prentice Hall, 1977, pp. 140-194.

VI D. Gries, The Science of Programming, Springer-Verlag, 1981, p. 297.

VII E. W. Dijkstra, The Humble Programmer, Comm. ACM, Vol. 15, no. 10,

VIII P. J. Denning, A hard look at Structured Programming, In
Structured Programming, Infotech State of the Art Report (1976), pp.

Bibliography of Scientific and Technical Writings

(Danish titles are translated into English and given brackets.)

1. Comet Whipple-Fedtke (1942 g), ephemeris. Circulaire no. 956,
Bureau central des télégrammes astronomiques, Copenhague, 15 July 1943.
Other similar work appears in later circulars during the period 1943-1949.
This is not quoted below.

2. Komet Daimaca (Comet Daimaca) (1943 c), orbit determination. News
communications of the Astronomical society no. 270, Copenhagen, 4 October
1943. Other similar work appears in later communications in this series.
This is not included below.

3. Kometerne (The comets). Nordisk astronomisk tidsskrift, 3/1944, pp.

4. Iagttagelser af foranderlige stjerner (Observations of variable
stars). Nordisk astronomisk tidsskrift 4/1944, p. 124; 2/1945, p. 64;
3/1945, pp. 102-104; 4/1945, pp. 130-133.

5. Om beregningen af den definitive bane for komet du
Toit-Neujmin-Delporte (On calculating the definitive orbit of comet du
Toit-Neujmin-Delporte) (1941 e). 18 p. Prize essay, Gammel Hellerup High
School, 9 March 1945.

6. The orbit of comet du Toit-Neujmin-Delporte (1941 e). 9 p. Det kgl.
Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, Mat. fys. Medd. Vol. 22, no. 1, 1945.

7. Kometerne (The comets). Nordisk astronomisk tidsskrift, 3/1945, pp.

8. Nova Aquilae. Nordisk astronomisk tidsskrift, 3/1945, p. 110.

9. Total måneformørkelse (Total eclipse of the moon). Nordisk
astronomisk tidsskrift, 3/1945, p.105; 2/1946, p. 72; 3/1946, p. 118.

10. Tavleforedrag om Niels Bohr (A talk on Niels Bohr). Gammel Hellerup
High School, bulletin of the school year 1945-46, pp. 28-37. 7 October 1945.

11. Kometerne (The comets). Nordisk astronomisk tidsskrift, 1/1946, pp.

12. Kometerne (The comets). Nordisk astronomisk tidsskrift, 2/1946, p. 69.

13. Kometerne (The comets). Nordisk astronomisk tidsskrift, 3/1946, pp.

14. Stjerneskudsværmen den 9.-10. oktober (The meteor shower 9-10
October). Nordisk astronomisk tidsskrift, 4/1946, pp. 151-152.

15. Kometerne (The comets). Nordisk astronomisk tidsskrift, 2-3/1947,
pp. 80-83.

16. Foredrag om Tyge Brahe (Lecture on Tyge Brahe). Gammel Hellerup High
School, bulletin of the school year 1946-47, pp. 22-31. 14 December 1946.

17. Kometerne (The comets). Nordisk astronomisk tidsskrift, 4/1947, pp.

18. Kometerne (The comets). Nordisk astronomisk tidsskrift, 1/1948, pp.

19. Kometerne (The comets). Nordisk astronomisk tidsskrift, 2/1948, pp.

20. Kometerne (The comets). Nordisk astronomisk tidsskrift, 3/1948, pp.

21. Kometerne (The comets). Nordisk astronomisk tidsskrift, 4/1948, pp.

22. Kometerne (The comets). Nordisk astronomisk tidsskrift, 3/1949, p. 114.

23. Ephemeris for minor planet 51 Nemausa. Circular no. 1278, Bureau
central des télégrammes astronomiques, Copenhague, 1950. Other work on 51
Nemausa is reported in circulars 1327, 1387, 1451, 1467, 1522, 1649, 1710,
and 1711 (29 January 1960).

24. Notes for observers of minor planet 51 Nemausa. A set of notes was
prepared prior to each observing period during the years 1950 to about
1960. Unpublished.

25. Nyere teorier for solsystemets opståen (Modern theories of the
origin of the solar system). Nordisk astronomisk tidsskrift, 4/1950, pp.

26. Computation of special perturbations by an electronic calculator.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 111, no. 6, 1951,
pp. 107-116.

27. Lidt om regnemaskinen EDSAC (About the computer EDSAC). Nordisk
astronomisk tidsskrift, 3/1951, pp. 103-111.

28. Studenterliv og astronomi i Cambridge (Student life and astronomy
in Cambridge). Nordisk astronomisk tidsskrift, 4/1951, pp. 129-133.

29. Beretning om mit studieophold i Cambridge 1950-51 (An account of my
studies in Cambridge 1950-51). 17 p. Unpublished.

30. Stellarstatistik (Stellar statistics). Nordisk astronomisk
tidsskrift, 1/1952, pp. 13-18.

31. Note on special perturbations. 6 p. 14 January 1952. Unpublished.

32. Elektronregnemaskinernes logiske struktur (The logical structure of
the electronic computer). 1 p. Nordic Summer University 1952, district 4,

33. Unge stjerners oprindelse (The origin of young stars). Nordisk
astronomisk tidsskrift, 3/1952, pp. 84-88.

34. Stjernehimlen i august og september (The star sky in August and
September). 16 p. Schultz, Copenhagen, 1952.

35. De klareste radiokilders natur (The nature of the brightest radio
sources). Nordisk astronomisk tidsskrift, 1/1953, pp. 26-28.

36. Månens profil (The profile of the moon). Nordisk astronomisk
tidsskrift, 1/1953, pp. 35-37.

37. Convective cores in stars (co-author: D. E. Osterbrock). The
Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 117, no. 2, March 1953, pp. 306-310.

38. Solens og stjernernes energi (The energy of the sun and the stars).
Nordisk astronomisk tidsskrift, 4/1953, pp. 121-127.

39. Two models for the interior of the sun. The Astrophysical Journal,
Vol. 119, no. 2, March 1954, pp. 365-370.

40. Mælkevejssystemets spiralstruktur (The spiral structure of the
galaxy). Nordisk astronomisk tidsskrift, 1/1954, pp.1-7 and 2/1954, pp.

41. Review of Lancelot Hogben: Matematik for millioner (Mathematics for
the millions). Nordisk astronomisk tidsskrift, 1/1954, pp. 36-38.

42. Beretning om programstyrede elektronregnemaskiner i England, U.S.A.
og Sverige (An account of programmed electronic computers in England, the
U.S.A. and Sweden). 54 p. May 1954. Unpublished.

43. Strejftog i universet (A foray into the universe) (with B.
Strömgren). 95 p. Hans Reitzel, Copenhagen, 1954.

44. Elektronregnemaskinerne og hjernen (The electronic computer and the
brain). Perspektiv 1954, Vol.1, no.7, pp. 42-46.

45. Solformørkelsen juni 1954 (Eclipse of the sun, June, 1954).
Gutenberghus annual 1954, pp. 48-56.

46. Hurtigløberne (High velocity stars). Nordisk astronomisk
tidsskrift, 4/1954, pp. 143-149.

47. Review of Hannes Alfven: On the origin of the solar system. Nordisk
astronomisk tidsskrift, 4/1954, p. 151.

48. The energy production in convective cores in stars. Det kgl. Danske
Videnskabernes Selskab, mat. fys. medd., Vol. 29, no. 5, 14 p., 1954.

49. Albert Einstein (obituary). Nordisk astronomisk tidsskrift, 2/1955, pp.

50. Report to the Ole Rømer foundation: The 9th general meeting of the
international union of astronomy, Dublin 29 August - 6 September, 1955. 4
p. Unpublished.

51. Photographic observations of minor planets. Publications and
notices from the Copenhagen observatory, no. 165, 8 p., 1955.

52. Review of Kuiper (ed.): The Earth as a planet. Nordisk astronomisk
tidsskrift, 2/1955, pp. 70-71.

53. Fremskaffelse af egenbevægelser ved hjælp af Geschichte des
Fixsternhimmels (Determination of proper motion with the help of Geschichte
des Fixsternhimmels). 1 p. 5 June 1955. Unpublished.

54. The use of electronic calculating machines in astronomy, in "Vistas
in Astronomy", (ed. A. Beer), Vol. 1, pp. 467-473, Pergamon Press, London
and New York, 1955.

55. Moderne cifferregnemaskiner (Modern Digital Computers). Ingeniør-
og bygningsvæsen, no. 18, pp. 243-253, 1955.

56. Magnitudes and colors of bright F stars. The Astrophysical Journal,
Vol. 122, no. 1, 1955, pp. 182-184.

57. Stellar models based on the proton-proton reaction. 49 p. Dan. Mat.
Fys. Medd. Vol. 30, no. 16, 1956.

58. Solens eksplosioner - og lidt om solpletter (Explosions in the sun
- and something about sun spots). Naturens Verden, January 1957, pp. 15-20.

59. Den ydre ordrekode (til DASK) (The outer instruction code (for
DASK)), proposal. 9 p. 4 January 1957.

60. Trykning af hopadresser (Printing of jump addresses), DASK library
specification. 2 p. 9 January 1957.

61. Om programfejl og midlerne til at undgå og til at finde dem (On
programming errors and ways of avoiding and of finding them). 7 p. 13
January 1957. pp. 16.1-16.6 in "Lærebog i kodning for DASK" ("Textbook in
coding for DASK") by Chr. Andersen, Niels Ivar Bech and Ole Møller,
Regnecentralen, August 1958.

62. Indlæsning af adresse fra nummerskive under indlæsning af program
(Input of addresses from dials during reading of the program), DASK library
specification. 2 p. 14 February 1957.

63. Book Review of Strömgren: Universets udforskning (Exploring the
Universe). Naturens Verden, March 1957, p. 33.

64. Et og andet om kometer (Some notes on Comets). Naturens Verden,
April 1957, pp. 23-26.

65. Astronomi til forprøven (Astronomy for the preliminary examination)
- supplement to E. and B. Strömgren: Lærebog i astronomi (Textbook in
Astronomy). 28 p. Duplicated notes. 1957.

66. Minor planet 51 Nemausa and the fundamental system of declinations.
67 p. Doctoral thesis. 1957.

67. Radioastronomi (Radio Astronomy). Naturens Verden, June 1957, pp.

68. On solar models. The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 126, no. 1, July
1957, pp. 227-228.

69. Post mortem, ordrer (Post mortem, instructions), DASK program. 3 p.
18 August 1957.

70. Vejledning i den astronomiske litteratur i Københavns
observatoriums bibliotek (A guide to the literature on astronomy in the
library of the Copenhagen observatory). 3 p. Duplicated notes. September

71. Autobiography. Annual report from Copenhagen University, November
1957, pp.190-191.

72. Review of Ernst Zinner: The Stars above Us. Naturens Verden,
February 1958, p. 65.

73. Talk with Torkil Kemp, broadcast in Danish Radio, 16 March 1958.

74. Forskningsklimaet (The research climate). Videnskabsmanden, Vol.12,
no. 2., 10 April 1958, pp. 8-9.

75. Forprøvestudenternes mening om forelæsningerne i astronomi (What
preliminary examination students think about the lectures in astronomy). 13
May 1958. 2 p. Duplicated.

76. An automatic declination film measuring machine for the Brorfelde
meridian circle. Publications and notices from the Copenhagen observatory,
no. 174, 1958, 13 p.

77. Vi og vor verden, og Eksplosion eller evig skabelse? (Our world and
us, and Explosion or eternal creation ?). Familie Journalen 1958, no. 22 p.
14 and no. 23 p. 22.

78. Brorfelde observatoriets automatiske film-måler (The Brorfelde
observatory´s automatic film measuring machine). Ingeniørens ugeblad, 14
June 1958, pp. 4-5.

79. Report of a visit to the 10th general meeting of the international
union of astronomy in Moscow 13-20 August 1958. 4 p. Unpublished.

80. A transistorized quartz oscillator. 8 p., 1958. Unpublished.

81. Reviews of Kruse and Dieckvoss: The Stars, and Kurth and Schürer:
Zum Weltbild der Astronomie. Book supplement to Naturens Verden, Autumn
1958, p. 6.

82. Minor planet 51 Nemausa and the mass of Jupiter. 3 p. 15 October
1958. Unpublished.

83. Book reviews: Naef: Der Sternhimmel 1958; Schwartzschild: Structure
and evolution of the stars. Naturens verden, February 1959, p. 65.

84. DASK kontrolprogrammer (DASK control programs) (with Jørn Jensen
and Per Mondrup), 73 p., Regnecentralen, April 1959.

85. A numerical calculation of the stopping of a charged particle by a
degenerate Fermi gas according to the model of J. Lindhard using the
electronic calculator DASK, 8 p., Regnecentralen, 20 May 1959.

86. Subscripts in array declarations (with P. Mondrup) , Algol Bulletin
2.5.3, 1 May 1959. Correction in AB 3.8, 8 June 1959.

87. Input and output parameters in procedures. Algol Bulletin 3.7, 8
June 1959.

88. UNESCO´s konference om databehandling (The UNESCO conference on
data processing), Paris, 15-20 June 1959. 6 p.

89. Identifiers for variables, arrays, and functions, Algol Bulletin
4.14, 1 July 1959.

90. The treatment of integer-declared variables, Algol Bulletin 4.15, 1
July 1959.

91. Atomkerneprocesser i stjernerne (Nuclear reactions in the stars).
Ingeniør- og Bygningsvæsen no. 15, 10 August 1959, pp. 325-330.

92. Elektronregnemaskinernes sprog (The language of electronic
computers), 5 p., The Danish Association of Engineers: Using computers to
solve technical problems, November1959.

93. Løsning af differentialligninger med elektronregnemaskine (Solving
differential equations with electronic computers), 5 p., The Danish
Association of Engineers: Using computers to solve technical problems,
November 1959.

94. Ephemeris for minor planet 51 Nemausa for 1959-60, 3 p.
Regnecentralen, 4 January 1960.

95. Report on the algorithmic language ALGOL 60 (as editor, coauthors:
J. W. Backus, F. L. Bauer, J. Green, C. Katz, J. McCarthy, A. J. Perlis, H.
Rutishauser, K. Samelson, B. Vauquois, J. H. Wegstein, A. van Wijngaarden,
M. Woodger), 40 p., Regnecentralen 1960; Acta Polytech. Scand. 284;
Numerische Mathematik 2 (1960), pp.106-136; Comm. ACM 3, 6 (June 1960), pp.

96. Integers as labels (with I. Dahlstrand), Algol Bulletin 10.3, 20
April 1960.

97. Ledelse af mindre forskningsgrupper (Leading small research teams)
(as a member of study circle), 19 p. Young researchers. The Academy of
Technical Sciences, May 1960.

98. Kan maskinernes struktur og funktioner beskrives i Algol? (Can the
structure and function of machines be described in Algol?) NordSAM 60, Vol.
2, pp. 64.1-64.5, Regnecentralen, Copenhagen, 1960.

99. Letter to the members of the Algol 60 committee, Algol Bulletin
10.1.3, 17 June 1960.

100. The definition of a program, Algol Bulletin 10.5, 20 August 1960.

101. A function designator changing the value of a formal variable,
Algol Bulletin 10.6, 12 October 1960.

102. Bemærkninger til den ordrestruktur som er beskrevet i Preliminary
Description of GIER (Remarks on the order structure described in
Preliminary description of GIER). 1 p., 24 October 1960. Unpublished

103. Indtryk fra NordSAM 1960 (Impressions from NordSAM 1960).
Elektroteknikeren, 7 November 1960, p. 421.

104. Comment on the evaluation of Boolean expressions, Algol Bulletin
11.10.3, 14 November 1960.

105. Order of evaluation of expressions, Algol Bulletin 11.10.5, 14
November 1960.

106. Dynamic own arrays, Algol Bulletin 12.6, 22 December 1960.

107. Algol - det internationale sprog til at beskrive logiske og
numeriske processer (Algol - the international language for describing
logical and numerical processes), Nordisk Matematisk Tidskrift no. 8
(1960), pp. 117-129.

108. A Manual of the Dask Algol Language (with J. Jensen, T. Jensen, and
P. Mondrup), Regnecentralen 1961, 59 p.

109. An Implementation of Algol 60 Procedures (co-author: J. Jensen),
BIT 1 (1961), pp. 38-47.

110. A Storage Allocation Scheme for Algol 60 (co-authors: J. Jensen and
P. Mondrup), BIT 1 (1961), pp. 89-102.

111. The program of the wired store on DASK (co-authors: J. Jensen and
P. Mondrup), 70 p., Regnecentralen 1961.

112. The notions of Algol and Algol-like translators. Algol Bulletin
12.7, 2 January 1961.

113. Definition versus implementation of Algol, Algol Bulletin 12.8, 6
January 1961.

114. Answers to comments on Algol 60. Comm. ACM 4, 2 (February 1961),
pp. A16-A17.

115. A Course of Algol 60 Programming. 38 p. Regnecentralen, 1961. 2nd
edition 1961.

116. Algol procedure: Rootfinding by bisection. 1 p. Regnecentralen, 27
March 1961.

117. Udarbejdelsen af ALGOL oversætteren ved Mathematisch Centrum,
Amsterdam, og en sammenligning med DASK ALGOL projektet (Development of the
Algol translator at Mathematisch Centrum, Amsterdam, and a comparison with
the DASK Algol project). April 1961. Internal report, Regnecentralen. 8
handwritten pages.

118. Some uses of Jensen's Device for Algol 60 procedures, Automatic
Programming Information, no. 7 (May 1961), pp. 12-13. CR 2146.

119. Status of the work on the international algorithmic language Algol,
in "Codes for Reactor Computations", pp. 415-420 , Intern. Atomic Energy
Agency, 1961.

120. Rapport fra ISO/TC 97 (Report from ISO/TC 97), i.e. International
Organization for Standardization, Technical Committee 97: Computers and
Information Processing. 1. meeting, Geneve 15-19 May 1961. 2p.

121. The progress of Algol in Europe. Proc. 1961 Computer Applications
Symposium, Macmillan, New York.

122. The execute instruction: meaning and use, 3 p., Univ. of North
Carolina Computation Center, Programming note no. 70, August 1961.

123. Report on ACM National Meeting, Los Angeles, 5-8 September 1961. 2
p. Mimeographed. Univ. of North Carolina.

124. Notes on Algol Translator and Running System, 12 + 51 + 9 + 60 p.
Univ. of North Carolina Computation Center, December 1961 (mimeographed).

125. Review of E. W. Dijkstra: Ein Algol-60 Übersetzer für die X1. CR
1391, Computing Reviews 3 (January - February 1962), pp. 16-17.

126. Questionnaire. Algol Bulletin 14.1, 16 January 1962.

127. Gier Algol Running System. 25 p. Internal report, Regnecentralen,
26 January - 8 March 1962.

128. Revised report on the algorithmic language ALGOL 60 (as editor,
co-authors: J. W. Backus, J. Green, C. Katz, J. McCarthy, A. J. Perlis, H.
Rutishauser, K. Samelson, B. Vauquois, J. H. Wegstein, A. van Wijngaarden,
M. Woodger). Regnecentralen 1962, 43 p.; Comm. ACM 6, 1 (Jan. 1963), pp.
1-17; also in Numerische Mathematik and elsewhere and in translations into
several other languages.

129. Gier Algol translator - general pass mechanism. Internal report,
Regnecentralen, 3 May 1962, 10 p.

130. Gier Algol translator - pass 6: conversation to Polish notation.
Type checking. Internal report, Regnecentralen, 21 May 1962, 4 p.

131. Philosophies for efficient processor construction (as member of
discussion panel, Rome March 1962), International Computation Centre (ICC)
Bulletin 1, 2 (July 1962), pp. 85-99.

132. Algol and its implementation, Lecture notes, National Science
Foundation Summer Institute on Advanced Topics in the Computer Sciences,
Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, June 11 - July 20, 1962. 61 p.

133. Procedure Mersn (integration of first order differential
equations). 1 p. Regnecentralen. 20 July 1962.

134. The basic philosophy, concepts and features of Algol, Proc.
Symposium on Symbolic Languages in Data Processing, Rome 1962, pp. 385-389.
Gordon and Breach, New York.

135. Elektronregnemaskiner (Electronic computers), in "Verdens 2 x 7
underværker" ("The 2 x 7 wonders of the world"). Gyldendal's Owl books
1962, pp. 77-81.

136. Review of D. E. Knuth and J. Merner: Algol 60 confidential. CR
2137, Computing Reviews 3 (July - August 1962), p. 147.

137. The Algol compiler for the Gier. 2 p. Regnecentralen, August 1962.

138. Den foreløbige Gier Algol oversætter (The temporary Gier Algol
translator). 4 p. Regnecentralen, 11 September 1962.

139. Partial differential equations (with C. Gram and E. T. Poulsen),
pp. 29-113 in "Selected Numerical Methods" ed. C. Gram, Regnecentralen and
Gjellerup, Copenhagen, 1962.

140. A Manual of Gier Algol, Regnecentralen 1963, 63 p.

141. The design of the Gier Algol Compiler. BIT 3 (1963), pp. 124-140
and pp. 145-166; Annual Review in Automatic Programming (ed. R. Goodman)
Vol. 4, pp. 49-85; Russian translation: Sovremennoye Programmirovanie,
Sovjetskoye Radio, Moskva 1966, pp. 161-207.

142. Documentation Problems: Algol 60. Comm. ACM 6 (1963), pp. 77-79.

143. Remarks on algorithm 42 Invert; Remarks on and certification of
algorithm 50 Inverse of a finite segment of the Hilbert matrix; Remarks on
and certification of algorithm 52 A set of test matrices; Remarks on
algorithm 107 Gauss´s method; Certification of algorithm for calculating
primes by means of GPS; Certification of algorithms 117 and 118 magic
squares; Certification of algorithm 120 and matrix inversion by
Gauss-Jordan Inversion II; Comm. ACM 6, 1 (Jan. 1963), pp. 38-40.

144. Go to statements and good Algol style. BIT 3 (1963), pp. 204-205.

145. Numeriske metoder, regnemaskinerne og ingeniøruddannelsen ved
Danmarks Tekniske Højskole (DTH) (Numerical methods, computers, and the
engineering curriculum at the Technical University of Denmark), 6 p. June
1963 (duplicated).

146. Report from the International Standardization
Organization/Technical Committee 97: Computers and Information
Processing/Subcommittee 5: Programming Languages, meeting in Berlin 5-7
June 1963. 2 p. 10 June 1963. Unpublished.

147. Preliminary design of a Cobol compiler. 4 p. Progress report,
Regnecentralen, June 1963.

148. Supplerende noter og opgaver til Modern Computing Methods, National
Physical Laboratory (Supplementary notes and exercises to Modern Computing
Methods, National Physical Laboratory), for use in the course on Numerical
Methods at DTH - second part, section A. 4 p., 1963. Duplicated.

149. Correction to earlier remarks on algorithm 42 Invert etc.;
Additional remarks on algorithm 52 A set of test matrices; Certification of
algorithm 85 Jacobi; Comm. ACM 6, 8 (August 1963) pp. 445-447.

150. Gier - a Danish computer of medium size (with co-authors: C. Gram,
O. Hestvik, H. Isaksson, P. T. Jacobsen, J. Jensen, B. S. Petersen and B.
Svejgaard), IEEE Transactions on Electronic Computers, EC-12, no. 5,
December 1963, pp. 629-650.

151. Paul Bergsøe og hans "Astronomi for mælkedrenge" (Paul Bergsøe and
his "Astronomy for the milkman."). Dansk Kemi Vol. 45, p. 27, 1964.

152. Review of Erling Dessau: Datamaskiner (Computers). Berlingske
Aftenavis, approx. 20 March 1964.

153. Certification of algorithm 122 Tridiagonal matrix; Certification of
algorithm 150 Syminv2. Comm. ACM 7, 3 (March 1964), pp. 144-145 and 148.

154. Remarks on algorithm 91 Chebyshev curve fit. Comm. ACM 7, 5 (May
1964), p. 296.

155. Preliminary appraisal of Report of the Share Advanced Language
Development Committee, March 1 1964, revised edition; Comments on NEW
PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE specifications, second edition, IBM British
Laboratories (undated, received 20 June 1964). 3 p. May and June 1964,
internal memorandum, Regnecentralen.

156. A Manual of Gier Algol III. 67 p. Regnecentralen 1964.

157. Using machine code within an Algol system. BIT 4 (1964), pp.
115-117; Russian translation: Sovremennoye Programmirovanie, Sovjetskoye
Radio, Moscow 1966, pp. 208-210.

158. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors of real, symmetric matrices, BIT 4
(1964), pp. 120-130.

159. Automatic Grading of Students' Algol Programming, BIT 4 (1964), pp.

160. Proposal for an Algol 60 compiler system for the IBM 360 machines.
3 p. Internal memorandum, Regnecentralen, 15 August 1964.

161. Checking of Operand Types in Algol Compilers. NordSAM 64 Stockholm,
August 1964; BIT 5 (1965), pp. 151-163.

162. Proposals for a new language. Algol Bulletin no. 18, (October
1964), pp. 26-43.

163. Telefonvækning (The telephone waking service). 2 p. Internal
memorandum, Regnecentralen, 5 November 1964.

164. The design of effective programming systems, 10 p., December 1964,

165. Man compiler - baby machine. Algol Bulletin, January 1965.

166. A few notes (on a new programming language). Algol Bulletin no. 19
(January 1965), pp. 51-54.

167. The Place of Programming in a World of Problems, Tools, and People,
Proc. IFIP Congress 65 (1965), pp. 195-199.

168. Organizing the use of multi-level stores. 7 p. Symp. on design of
programming language processors, IFIP Congress, 1965.

169. Invitations to continued exchange of ideas (on a new programming
language). Algol Bulletin no. 20 (July 1965), pp. 23-26.

170. The Performance of a System for Automatic Segmentation of Programs
Within an Algol Compiler (Gier Algol), Comm. ACM 8 (1965), pp. 671-677, and
Information Processing Machines, Proc. Symposium in Prague, 7-9 September
1964, pp. 89-106.

171. State analysis of linear texts, 16 p. Regnecentralen, preliminary
draft, 1965.

172. Pass output from Gier Algol III. 15 p. Gier system library, no.
370, Regnecentralen, Copenhagen, August 1965.

173. Den røde tråd i fugleperspektiv (A bird's eye view of the red
thread) - status October 1965 - provisional chapter headings. 3 p.
Circular, Regnecentralen, October 1965.

174. Contributions to IFIP Working Group 2.1 on Algol: 1. ALGOL 6 X,
Proposal for introduction on aims, 3 p. 2. Proposal for a chapter on
Suggested Facilities, 5 p. 3. Remarks on N. Wirth's proposal, MR 75, 11 p.,
26 October 1965. Unpublished.

175. Allowing the number of parameters in a procedure call to vary from
call to call. - The form of specifications. Algol Bulletin no. 22 (February
1966), pp. 13-14.

176. Den røde tråd (The red thread) - developments from October 1965 to
May 1966 (with J. Hald, H. B. Hansen, A. Wessel), 5 p. Internal circular,
Regnecentralen, May 1966.

177. Review of Olle Dopping: Datamaskiner och databehandling (Computers
and Data processing). BIT 6, 4 (1966), pp. 362-364.

178. Datalogi og datamatik og deres placering i uddannelsen (Datalogy
and datamatics and their place in education). 3 p. Magisterbladet, 15 May

179. The Science of Datalogy (letter to the editor). Comm. ACM 9, 7
(July 1966), p. 485.

180. Program Translation Viewed as a General Data Processing Problem,
Comm. ACM 9 (1966), pp. 176-179.

181. Plan for et kursus i datalogi og datamatik (Plan for a course of
datalogy and datamatics), A/S Regnecentralen, March 1966. 64 p. See
Computing Reviews for English description CR 16,098.

182. Proof of Algorithms by General Snapshots, BIT 6 (1966), pp. 310-316.

183. Proof, Test, and Construction of Data Processes, A/S
Regnecentralen, 1966 (internal report), 36 p.

184. Datamaskinerne i fremtidens samfund (Computers in the society of
the future). BT, 30 December 1966.

185. Skitse til et datamatisk system til overvågning og evt. styring af
Risø DR3 bestrålingseksperimenter baseret på Regnecentralens RC4000 (Sketch
of a computer system for the supervising and if necessary control of Risø
DR3 radiation experiments based on Regnecentralen's RC4000). 10 p.
Regnecentralen, internal memorandum, March 1967.

186. Notat vedr. intern rapport fra Haldor Topsøe, 19. maj 1967,
(Memorandum about internal report from Haldor Topsøe, 19 May 1967) item no.
358: General Integrated Program System, GIPS. 3 p. Regnecentralen, internal
circulation, 19 June 1967.

187. Datalogiens grundbegreber (Basic concepts of datalogy), chapter 1
of "Datalogi" ("Datalogy"). 15 p. Regnecentralen, internal report, July

188. Parallelle processer i datamater, elementære overvejelser med
henblik på RC4000 systemprogrammering (Parallel processes in computers,
elementary re▀ections with reference to RC4000 system programming). 7 p.
Regnecentralen, internal memorandum, 7 July 1967.

189. Utopier (Utopias), Teknisk Forlag, 1967, 63 p.

190. A Manual of Gier Algol 4 , A/S Regnecentralen 1967, 89 p.

191. Machine Dependent Programming in Common Languages, BIT 7 (1967),
pp. 123-131.

192. Computers and Programming Languages, A/S Regnecentralen, 1967. 71 p.

193. Datamaskinerne og samfundet (Computers and society). 104 p.
Munksgård 1967; Swedish edition: Datamaskinerne och samhället, 99 p.
Studentlitteratur, Lund, 1969.

194. Tolv opgaver i algoritmisk analyse (Twelve exercises in algorithmical
analysis). Studentlitteratur 1967. 49 p.

195. Plan for intern undervisning i datalogi (Plan for in-house teaching
in datalogy) (with C. Gram and H. B. Hansen), 2 p., circular.
Regnecentralen, October 1967.

196. The complete annotated programs of Gier Algol 4 (co-authors: T.
Asmussen, J. Jensen, S. Lauesen, P. Lindgren, P. Mondrup, J. Zachariassen).
Gier System Library no. 494, 2 volumes, Regnecentralen, December 1967.

197. Kursus i datalogi, oktober - december 1967 (A course of datalogy,
October - December 1967) (with C. Gram and H. B. Hansen). 4 p.
Regnecentralen, internal memorandum, January 1968.

198. Hvilken matematik har vi brug for i edb-tidsalderen? (What kind of
mathematics do we need in the EDP age?) 13 p. Transcription of lecture in
ATV group 3, 22 februar 1968. Unpublished.

199. Digital data representations, chapter 4 of "A course of datalogy
and datamatics". 22 p. Preliminary draft, Regnecentralen, February 1968.

200. Syntax and analysis of linear texts, chapter 8 of "A course of
datalogy and datamatics". 16 p. Preliminary draft, Regnecentralen, March

201. The design of large data systems, chapter 18 of "A course of
datalogy and datamatics". 12 p. Preliminary draft, Regnecentralen, April

202. Demokrati i datamatiseringens tidsalder (Democracy in the age of
computerization), pp. 31-32. Kriterium Vol. 3, no. 5, June 1968.

203. Successes and failures of the Algol effort. Algol Bulletin no. 28,
(July 1968), pp. 58-62.

204. Principles of Student Problems in Datalogy, NordDATA-68 1968, pp.

205. Datalogy, the Science of Data and Data Processes, and its Place in
Education. Proc. IFIP Congress 68, pp. G48-G52, 1968.

206. The profiles of software designers and producers. Contribution to
NATO conference on Software Engineering, Garmisch, September 1968. 3 p.

207. Features of the Gier Algol 4 system. BIT 8 (1968), pp. 36-42; Bull.
Math. de la Soc. Sci. Math. de la R. S. de Roumanie Tome 12 (60), no. 1,

208. En datalogs reaktion på tanken om et stort regionalt regnecenter
ved Københavns universitet (The reaction of a computer scientist to the
idea of a large regional computer centre at the University of Copenhagen).
5 p. Unpublished memorandum. November 1968.

209. Forslag og ønsker vedr. datalogien ved Københavns universitet
(Proposals and wishes as to datalogy at Copenhagen University). 5 p.
Unpublished note. January 1969.

210. Twelve Exercises in Algorithmic Analysis, Studentlitteratur 1969. 41 p.

211. Datalogi (Datalogy), 7 School Radio/TV programs in spring 1969
(co-authors: C. Gram and H. B. Hansen), 60 p.

212. Software Engineering (as editor, co-editor: Brian Randell), Report
on a Conference sponsored by NATO Science Committee, 1969. 231 p. Reprinted
in P. Naur, B. Randell and J. N. Buxton, eds., Software Engineering:
Concepts and Techniques, Petrocelli/Carter, New York, 1976.

213. Datamatik (Datamatics) (co-authors: C. Gram, J. Hald, H. B. Hansen
and A. Wessel), part 1, 3, 6, 7, 8, and 15: 29, 49, 69, 91, 71 and 65 p.
Studentlitteratur 1969.

214. Kommentar til anmeldelse af Danmarks Skoleradio/TV DATALOGI, ved
Peter Kaae, EDB-rådet, lærermiddeludvalget (Comments on a review of Danish
School Radio/TV DATALOGY, by Peter Kaae, EDP Council, teaching material
committee). 3 p. Internal report Regnecentralen, 11 April 1969.

215. Den store edb-betænkning (The big EDP report). Feature article in
Politiken, 28 and 30 April 1969.

216. Regnecentralen's use of the ISO character set (with D. B. Wagner).
14 p. Regnecentralen, May 1969.

217. Lists and pointers, chapter 10 of "A course of datalogy and
datamatics". 21 p. Unpublished, May 1969.

218. A course of datalogy for radio and TV. NordDATA-69, 11-14 June
1969, Stockholm, congress lecture part 3, pp. 53-60.

219. Programming by Action Clusters. BIT 9 (1969), pp. 250-258.

220. Erfaringer med Basic Tutor i ØK-Deldata systemet (Experiences with
Basic Tutor in the ØK-Deldata system) 3 p. + 76 p. appendix. Unpublished.
30 August 1969.

221. Selskabet for Samfundsdebat (Society for Social Debate). Letter in
Information, 23 October1969.

222. Datamaskiner (Computers), pp. 245-250 in "En Kulturpolitisk
Redegørelse" ("An Account of Cultural Policy"), report no. 517 by the
Ministry of Cultural Affairs. 1969.

223. Databehandling i fremtiden (Data processing in the Future). pp.
323-361 in "Bogen om edb" ("The EDP Book"), Politikens forlag, 1st edition
1969; pp. 390-429 in 2nd edition 1970.

224. Review of Olle Dopping: Kort og brett ("Short and Broad" ) BIT 9, 4
(1969), p. 92.

225. Preface to "Sagaen om den store datamaskine" (The saga of the large
computer), a vision by Oluf Johannesson. ØK-Data, Copenhagen 1970.

226. Planer og ideer for et datalogisk institut ved Københavns
universitet (Plans and ideas for an institute of Datalogy at Copenhagen
University). 89 p. Studentlitteratur, Lund, 1970.

227. Notes concerning unpublished documents related to the development
of Algol 60. 4 p., February 1970. Unpublished.

228. Ikke et etisk, men et lovgivningsspørgsmål (Not a question of
ethics but of legislation). pp. 26-27 in "Misbrug af dataregistre skal
forhindres", Junior Chamber Copenhagen 1970. English edition "Misuse of
data records must be prevented" 1971.

229. Kræftsvulster på samfundet (Cancerous growths on society). Feature
article in Politiken, 11 March 1970.

230. Open letter to Professor Karl Ove Nielsen, leader of Atomic Energy
Commission's experimental station at Risø. 3 p. Not printed. 13 March 1970.

231. Project activity in computer science education. Lezione "Leonardo
Fibonacci" 1969. 13 p. Pisa, 8 April 1970.

232. Styring af køretids-fejlreaktionerne ved Gier Algol 4 (Control of
run-time error reactions in Gier Algol 4), 3 p. Institute of Datalogy, 8
May 1970 . Unpublished.

233. Hvad vil De med folkeskolen? - Et svar (What do You want of the
primary school? - An answer), p. 16 in Pædagogisk Orientering, no. 5, 1970.

234. DATA - Status 70 (DATA - State of the Art 70). Special supplement
to Politiken 26 August 1970.

235. Offentlige udvalg (Public committees) (as editor and chairman of a
working group under the aegis of the Society for Social Debate). 44 p.
Munksgård, November 1970.

236. Offentlige udvalg (Public committees). Feature article in
Berlingske Tidende, 4 December 1970.

237. Datalogi i skolen (Datalogy in the school). pp. 3-6, Notabene,
Gjellerups forlag, Vol. 6, no. 2, December 1970.

238. Digital data representations, chapter 4 of "A course of datalogy
and datamatics". 72 p. Unpublished, March 1971.

239. Manden der skabte RC (The man who created RC). Politiken, 25 March

240. Et åbent universitet (An open University). Feature article in
Politiken, 29 March 1971.

241. "Computer Science" som forsknings- og undervisningsemne i højskole
og universitet ("Computer Science" as a subject of research and teaching at
folk high schools and the university). 2 p. Summary. NordDATA-71,
Stavanger, pp. 289-290, 1971.

242. Ideer til en ny radio- og TV-ordning (Ideas for a new radio and TV
system). Feature article in Politiken, 7 July 1971.

243. Speederen i bund - fuld fart mod afgrunden (Step on the gas - full
speed ahead to the abyss), pp. 9-13 in "Midler uden mål" ("Means without an
end"), ed. Villy Sørensen, Spektrums Aktuelle, 1971.

244. Datasystemer - og forsvaret imod dem (Computer systems and the
defence against them). Feature article in Politiken, 31 July 1971.

245. Review of "Edb-ordbogen" (the EDP dictionary). BIT 11 (1971), pp.

246. Forslag og tilføjelser til edb-ordbog Dansk Standard DS 2049- 1970
(Suggestions and additions to the EDP dictionary Danish Standard DS 2049-
1970) (with J. Hilden and G. Leunbach). 32 p. Copenhagen University's fund
for the production of teaching materials, August 1971.

247. Matematik 4 kursusbog (A textbook for Mathematics 4) (with B.
Pedersen). 104 p., Institute of Datalogy, Copenhagen University, August

248. Problemformulering - edb-projektets grobund (Problem formulation -
the fertile soil of the EDP project). pp. 46-48, Data 1/71, September 1971.

249. Matematik 4 kursusbog del 2 (A textbook for Mathematics 4, part 2) (with B. Pedersen). 104 p. The Institute of Datalogy, Copenhagen University, De
cember 1971.

250. "The Economist" and "The Limits to Growth", a study in polemical
demagogy. 4 p. 8 April 1972. Not printed.

251. Nordic working conference on basic software (as organizer and
editor). 80 p. Dansk Selskab for Datalogi, June 1972.

252. Programming languages - status and trends. pp. 731-739 in NordDATA
72, Konferensföredrag II June 1972; revised text in DATA 6/72, pp. 36-38.

253. An experiment on program development. BIT 12, 3 (1972), pp. 347-365.

254. Lovgiver eller ekspeditionskontor? (Legislator or inquiry office?)
Feature article in Politiken, 8 June 1972.

255. The design of large data systems. Infotech Report on Software
Engineering, Infotech, Maidenhead, England, 1972, pp. 447-459. (Chapter 18
of Concise Survey of Computer Methods, 1974).

256. Review of René Dubos and Barbara Ward: Kun én jord (Only one
earth). 2 p. Radio broadcast, 16 June 1972.

257. En utilgivelig uansvarlighed (Unforgivable irresponsibility), an
answer to Professor Mogens Boserup. Politiken, 26 August 1972, p. 9.

258. Matematik 4 = Datalogi 0 kursusbog (Mathematics 4 = Datalogy 0
textbook) (co-authors: Bent Pedersen og Nils Andersen). 214 p. The
Institute of Datalogy, Copenhagen University, August 1972.

259. På trods af kvalme og ubehag (Despite nausea and discomfort) (an
answer to Jesper Gørtz). Hovedområdet, no. 7, September 1972, p. 10.

260. Jay W. Forresters World Dynamics model udformet som et Algol 60
program (Jay W. Forrester´s World Dynamics model as an Algol 60 program).
18 p. 26 September 1972. Not printed.

261. Nej til broer og lufthavn (No to bridges and airports). Commentary
in Politiken, 28 November 1972.

262. Datalogi, datamatik, edb, databehandling, som indslag i alle
studier (Datalogy, datamatics, EDP, data processing as elements in all
programs of study) - Plan of a subject-oriented course in elementary
datalogy. Co-authors: J. Damgaard Andersen, Jørgen Hilden, Gustav Leunbach,
Jørgen Born Rasmussen, Torben Warnich-Hansen, and Per Winkel. 100 p. The
Institute of Datalogy, Copenhagen University, 1973.

263. Standardization of Programming Languages. NordDATA 73 Conference
lecture. 15-17 August, Copenhagen 1973, pp. 1062-1071.

264. Concise Survey of Computer Methods. Studentlitteratur, Lund, 1974,
397 p.

265. Datalogy zero - a freshman course of computer science. Data/5-74,
Copenhagen, pp. 49-51.

266. Preface to Sven Eriksen: Cobol håndbogen (The Cobol handbook)
Akademisk Forlag, 1974, pp. III-IV.

267. Retningslinier for universitetskurser i datalogi som hjælpefag
(Guidelines for university courses in datalogy as an auxiliary subject).
Handbook for teachers in the organization of subject-oriented teaching.
Copenhagen university, the datalogy course group under the EDP committee,
The institute of Datalogy, 1974, 95 p. [Revised edition of ref. 262]

268. Beretning om IFIP WG 2.3 (Report on IFIP WG 2.3) (International
Federation for Information Processing, Working Group 2.3), Programming
Methodology, meeting in München 9-13 December1974, 3 p.

269. Trends in computer science education. GI 4. Jahrestagung, Berlin,
9-12 October 1974, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 26, Springer-Verlag,
1975, pp. 85-93.

270. What Happens during Program Development? - an Experiment. Lundeberg
and Bubenko (eds.): Systemeering 75, Studentlitteratur, 1975, pp. 269-289.

271. The impact on society of computers in education. O. Lecarme and R.
Lewis (eds.): Computers in education, North-Holland Publishing Co., 1975,
pp. 945-949.

272. ACM Publications Indispensable. Letter to the editor, Comm. ACM 18,
8 (August 1975), p. 432.

273. Niels Ivar Bech 22. august 1920 - 25. juli 1975 (Niels Ivar Bech 22
August 1920 - 25 July 1975) Politiken, 8 August 1975, and Data nytt, 15
August 1975.

274. Datalogi 2 1975/76 (Datalogy 2 1975/76), textbook for the autumn
semester. The Institute of Datalogy, Copenhagen University, August 1975,
102 p.

275. Review of Per Brinch Hansen: Operating Systems Principles. BIT 15
(1975), pp. 455-457.

276. Den umulige TV-debat (The impossible TV debate). Feature article in
Politiken, 8 November 1975.

277. Programming Languages, Natural Languages, and Mathematics. Comm.
ACM 18, 12 (December 1975), pp. 676-683.

278. An adaptable course of elementary, university level, computer
science. Proceedings of the Joint International Seminar in Computing
Science, IBM United Kingdom Ltd. and University of Newcastle upon Tyne,
9-12 September 1975.

279. Problems of attitudes in discussing the computer/society relation.
Proceedings of the Joint International Seminar in Computing Science, IBM
United Kingdom Ltd. and University of Newcastle upon Tyne, 9-12 September

280. Software Engineering, Concepts and Techniques. As editor with Brian
Randell and J. N. Buxton (reissue of Software Engineering, 1969).
Petrocelli/Charter, New York, 1976. 306 p.

281. Regnecentralen og Algol 60 (Regnecentralen (The Danish Institute of
Computing Machinery) and Algol 60. In Sveistrup, P., Naur, P., Hansen, H.
B., and Gram, Chr. (eds.): Niels Ivar Bech - en epoke i edb-udviklingen i
Danmark (an epoch in the development of EDP in Denmark), Data 1976, pp.

282. Control Record Driven Processing. In Structured Programming, The
Infotech International State of the Art Reports, 1976, pp. 309-322.

283. Datalogi 2 1976/77 (Datalogy 2 1976/77), textbook for the autumn
semester. Copenhagen University, the Institute of Datalogy, August 1976, 96

284. Control Record Driven Processing [reprint of above]. R. T. Yeh
(ed.): Current Trends in Programming Methodology, Vol. 1 Software
Specification and Design, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Englewood Cliffs, New
Jersey, 1977, pp. 220-232.

285. Software Reliability. In Reliable Software, Vol. 2: Invited Papers,
Infotech State of the Art Report, Maidenhead, England, 1977, pp. 243-251.

286. Lidt om amatør-kammermusik og Dansk Kammermusikforbund (Something
about chamber music and the Danish chamber music society). Dansk
Amatørmusik, no. 1, February 1978, pp. 2-4.

287. Diminishing returns of user programming. In Infotech State of Art
Report, Vol. 2, Future Programming, 1978, pp. 143-149.

288. The European side of the last phase of the development of Algol 60.
Sigplan Notices Vol. 13, no. 8, August 1978, pp. 15-44.

289. Review 33,686: John Backus: Can programming be liberated from the
von Neuman style? A functional style and its algebra of programs. Computing
Reviews, 19, 11 (November 1978), p. 445.

290. Critique of the ISO data processing vocabulary. The Computer
Journal, 22, 3 (August 1979), p. 286.

291. Impressions of the early days of programming. BIT 20 (1980), pp.

292. A vector-handling subroutine using call by name written for the
EDSAC in 1951. Unpublished, 1980, 9 p.

293. Datalære (Computer science in grammar school). Letter to the
editor, Politiken, 18 October 1980.

294. Formalization in a proof of Gauss. Unpublished, 1980, 4 p.

295. An algorithm that needs proving - notes on a proof by Warshall.
1980, 9p. Unpublished.

296. An empirical approach to program analysis and construction. In
Systems Architecture, Proceedings of the sixth ACM European regional
conference, ICS 81, 1981, Westbury House, Guildford, Surrey, England, pp.
265-272. ISBN 0 86103 050 8.

297. Review 37,345: W. E. Howden: Applicability of software validation
techniques to scientific programs. Computing Reviews 22, 1 (Jan. 1981), p.

298. Paper: The European side of the last phase of the development of
ALGOL 60, and transcript of presentation. In R. L. Wexelblat (ed.):
Proceedings of the History of Programming Languages Conference, Los
Angeles, Calif., 1-3 June 1978. Academic Press, New York, 1981, pp. 92-139
and pp. 147-161. ISBN 0-12-745040-8.

299. Prospects for the programming methodologies. Infotech State of the
Art Report, Ser. 9, no. 6, System Design, 1981, pp. 295-300.

300. Aad van Wijngaarden's contribution to ALGOL 60. In Algorithmic
Languages, ed. de Bakker, van Vliet, North-Holland Publ., 1981, pp. 293-304.

301. Programming of a well-understood task. Unpublished, 1981, 80 p.

302. Formalization in program development. BIT 22 (1982), pp. 437-453.

303. Review of E. W. Dijkstra: Selected writings on computing: a
personal perspective. Science of Computer Programming, Vol. 2, no. 3,
December 1982. Published August 1983. pp. 269-272.

304. Program development studies based on diaries. In Psychology of
Computer Use, ed. T. R. G. Green, S. J. Payne, G. C. van der Veer, Academic
Press, London, 1983, pp. 159-170. ISBN 0-12-297420-4.

305. Review 40,682: T. Moher and G. M. Schneider: Methodology and
experimental research in software engineering. Computing Reviews 24, 9
(Sept. 1983) p. 404.

306. Comments on "On the psychology of prototyping" by Anker Helms
Jørgensen. In: R. Budde, Kuhlenkamp, and L. Mathiassen (eds.), Approaches
to Prototyping, Proceedings of the working conference (Namur, Oct. 1983),
Springer-Verlag, N.Y., 1984, pp. 290-291.

307. Datalogiens veje og vildveje (Right and wrong tracks in computer
science). Weekendavisen, 9 December 1983.

308. Mennesket er ikke en maskine - og omvendt (Man is not a machine -
and vice versa). Feature article in Politiken, 1 January 1984.

309. This Week's Citation Classic: Backus et al.: Revised report on the
algorithmic language ALGOL 60. Current Contents no. 2, 9 January 1984, p.

310. DIKU er død (DIKU is dead) - An open letter about the demise of
DIKU as a responsable institution of teaching and research on the
university level. Universitetsavisen, 18 April 1984 .

311. Niels Ivar Bech - Some commemorative words at the awarding of the
Niels Ivar Bech-prize, 1984. Nordisk DATAnytt 11/84 p. 59.

312. Programming as theory building. Microprocessing and
Microprogramming 15, 1985, pp. 253-261.

313. Review 8502-0062 of D. Michie: Machine intelligence and related
topics. Computing Reviews 26, 2 (Febr. 1985), pp. 101-104.

314. Review 8506-0494 of J.-R. Abrial: Specification or how to give
reality to abstraction. Computing Reviews 26, 6 (June 1985), p. 335.

315. Intuition in software development. In: Formal Methods and Software
Development, Vol. 2: Colloquium on Software Engineering, eds. H. Ehrig, C.
Floyd, M. Nivat, and J. Thatcher. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 186,
Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985, pp. 60-79. ISBN 3-540-15199-0.

316. Thinking and Turings test. BIT 26 (1986), pp. 175-187.

317. Review 8608-0694 of R. L. Schwartz and P. M. Melliar-Smith: From
state machines to temporal logic: specification methods for protocol
analysis. Computing Reviews 27, 8 (August 1986), p. 402.

318. Dumt forslag om mønterne (Stupid proposal for the coins).
Commentary in Politiken, 22 november 1986.

319. Review 8702-0116 of A. L. Kidd: What do users ask? Some thoughts on
diagnostic advice. Computing Reviews 28, 2 (February 1987), p. 114.

320. Uddeling af BIT's Carl-Erik Fröberg pris (Giving out BIT's
Carl-Erik Fröberg Award). Data, årgang 17, nr. 7, 1987, 2 p.

321. Forskningsministerens brev er forbløffende (The letter from the
minister of research is amazing). Letter to the editor. Politiken, 8
September 1987.

322. Programming Studied from Case Activity Records. Invited lecture to
Fifth Symposium on Empirical Foundations of Information and Software
Sciences, 23-25 November 1987, Risø National Laboratory. To be published in
Empirical Foundations of Information and Software Science, Plenum Press,

323. Review 8802-0064 of M. A. Arbib: In search of the person:
philosophical explorations in cognitive science. Computing Reviews 29, 2
(February 1988), p. 88.

324. Programmeringssprog er ikke sprog (Programming languages are not
languages), Mål og Mæle 2, Vol. 12, 1988, Gads Boghandel, Copenhagen, pp.

325. Review 8803-0192 of S. Weidenbeck: Processes in computer program
comprehension, Computing Reviews, 29, 3 (March 1988), p.167.

Version 2002 maj 6

Supplement to
Bibliography of Peter Naur
DIKU Rapport Nr. 88/22 ISSN 0107-8283

326. Review 8903-0192 of Y. Shoham: Reasoning about change—time and causation from the standpoint of artificial intelligence, Computing Reviews 30, 1 (January 1989), p. 55-56.
327. Causes and human expectations and intents, 1989, In Computing: A Human Activity, p. 514-517, 1992.
328. The place of strictly defined notation in human insight. Workshop on Programming Logic, Båstad, Sweden, ed. P. Dybjer, L. Hallnäs, B. Nordström, K. Petersson, and J. M. Smith, Report 54, Programming Methodology Group, Univ. of Göteborg and Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden, May 1989, p. 429-443. In Computing: A Human Activity, p. 468-478, 1992.
329. Computing and the so-called foundations of the so-called sciences, Invited Lecture, Informatics Curricula for the 1990s, IFIP Working Group 3.2 Workshop, Providence, Rhode Island, 1990 april 6. In Computing: A Human Activity, p. 49-63, 1992.
330. Review 9110-0785 of S. S. Brillant, J. C. Knight, and N. G. Leveson: Analysis of faults in an N-version software experiment, Computing Reviews 32, 10 (October 1991), p. 517.
331. Review 9110-0795 of H. Ehrig, W. Fey, H. Hansen, M. Löwe, D. Jacobs, and F. Parisi-Presicce: Compatibility problems in the development of algebraic module specifications, Computing Reviews 32, 10 (October 1991), p. 521-22.
332. Three notions of proof, Proc. of the Second IFIP WG10.2/WG10.5 Workshop on Designing Correct Circuits, Lyngby, Denmark, 6-8 January 1992, North-Holland, 1992, p. 97-101.
333. Computing: A Human Activity, ACM Press/Addison-Wesley, New York, 1992, 656 p.
334. The metaphysics of constructed models, contribution to seminar in Dagstuhl, Universität des Saarlandes, Germany, 1992 febr. 10-14.
335. Review 9205-0297 of A. Gabrielian and M. K. Franklin: Multilevel specification of real time systems, Computing Reviews 33, 5 (May 1992), p. 256.
336. Proof of algorithms by general snapshots. In Program Verification, ed. T. R. Colburn et al., Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 1993, p. 57-64.
337. Formalization in program development. In Program Verification, ed. T. R. Colburn et al., Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 1993, p. 191-210.
338. The place of strictly defined notation in human insight. In Program Verification, ed. T. R. Colburn et al., Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 1993, p. 261-274.
339. Understanding Turing’s universal machine—personal style in program description. The Computer Journal, 36 no. 4, 1993, p. 351-372.
340. Review 9308-0558 of M. Wagman: Cognitive science and concepts of mind: toward a general theory of human and artifical intelligence, Computing Reviews 34, 8 (Aug. 1993), p. 413.
341. Review 9405-0311 of D. Sanella, S. Sokolowski, and A. Tarlecki: Toward formal development of programs from algebraic specifications: parameterisation revisited, Computing Reviews 35, 5 (May 1994), p. 263.
342. Proof versus formalization, BIT 34(1994), 148-164.
343. Bridging the gap between pure and applied computing, invited lecture to FOCUS ’94, June 8-10, 1994, in Copenhagen.
344. Rebuttal of review of 333 (co-authors E. Frøkjær and E. Sveinsdottir), Computing Reviews 35, 7 (July 1994), p. 353.
345. Review of B. von Eckardt: What is cognitive science? The Computer Journal, vol. 38, no. 10, p. 833-34, 1995.
346. Datalogi som videnskab. DIKU rapport nr. 95/4, 1995.
347. Knowing and the Mystique of Logic and Rules, Kluwer Academic Publishers, xii + 365 pages, 1995.
348. VIP-skema 1995 - en uforsvarlig undersøgelse, Universitetsavisen nr. 18, 9. nov. 1995.
349. Redaktionel forvanskning overfor videnskabelige forsvarlighed, Universitetsavisen nr. 20, 7. dec. 1995.
350. Universitetsledelse, troskyldig tåbelighed, og politistatsmetoder, fremsendt til Universitetsavisen i januar 1996, men ikke optaget da det var for langt.
351. Resultater af universitetsundersøgelsen, Universitetsavisen nr. 5, 28. marts 1996.
352. Et svar på evalueringsmakværket.Universitetsavisen nr. 7, 25. april 1996.
353. PARA ’96 Conference Dinner Talk, 1996 August 20, Workshop on applied parallel computing in industrial problems and optimization, Copenhagen, 4 sider.
354. Formal Program Development: Claims versus Achievements. Co-authored with Sju and Lars Thorup. Afvist af Software Practice and Experience.
355. Decay of ACM Publications. Viewpoint commentary to Communications of the ACM. Afvist.
356. Computer Modelling of Human Knowing Activity. Afvist af Comm. ACM.
357. Computing As Science. Afvist af Comm. ACM.
358. ALGOL: a Language for Communication of Algorithms, Encyclopedia of Computer Science, International Thomson Computer Press, 2 sider, 1997.
359. Kennen und Wissen psychologisch, sprachlich, informatisch, und wissenschaftlich betrachtet, 25 sider.1997.
360. Videnskab og vrøvl, Hovedområdet, Nr. 6, 3. okt. 1997, side 17.
361. Programming support in Danish Computing 1956 - 62, Approaches in History of computing, Dansk Teknologihistorisk Selskab, 2 sider.
362. A View of Computers of 1952, translated from Danish in 1999, 26 sider.
363. Antifilosofisk leksikon: Tænkning - sproglighed - videnskabelighed, 111 s., 1999, ISBN 87-987221-0-7.
364. Aberration in Special Relativity: a Case of Chronic ScientiŮc Confusion, Physics Essays, June 1999, vol. 12 no. 2, 358-67.
365. Indlæg om indlæg af Steen Wackerhausen og Niels Buch-Jepsen vedr. Bo Bjørnvigs interview, Weekendavisen, 1999 juli 23.
366. Det er vidunderligt det I laver - , Det Kgl. Teaters personaleblad, 2000 jan.
367. Fri os fra filosofi, debat i Universitetsavisen, 2000 maj 4, 18, juni 2, og 15
368. CHIand Human Thinking, NordiCHI2000 Proceedings, Stockholm 2000 Oct. 23-25.
369. Med Erik Frøkjær: Philosophical Locutions in Scientific and Scholarly Activity, 2000 Nov. 4
370. Tanker om integreret matematik og datalogi for gymnasiet, 2000 nov. 8, ikke trykt.
371. Filosofi mod videnskab, indlæg i Universitetsavisen 2000 nov. 16, 30, dec. 14
372. Med Erik Frøkjær: Filosofi mod videnskab, Jyllandsposten, 2001 jan. 17.
373. Med Erik Frøkjær: Hovedløst filosofikum, 2001 jan. 29, ikke trykt.
374. Sprog, dårlige vaner, og ensretning, debatindlæg, 2001 marts 16, ikke trykt.
375. Komma-kommandanterne, Ekstrabladet 2001 marts 22.
376. Ildtangen og den videnskabelige katastrofe, indlæg til Weekendavisen, efter aftale 2001 maj 1, ikke trykt.
377. Antiphilosophical Dictionary: Thinking - Speech - Science/Scholarship, 102 s., 2001, ISBN 87-987221-1-5.
378. Psykologiens ideologiske forfald, Berlingske Tidende, 2001 okt. 12
379. Psykologi uden bibler på hylden, Berlingske Tidende, 2001 okt. 31
380. Do you have bar numbers? 2002 jan., unpubl.
381. Nedlæg universiteternes filosofi og psykologi, 2002 febr., unpubl.
382. Psykologi i videnskabelig rekonstruktion, 113 s., 2002, ISBN 87-987221-2-3.
383. The Meaning of Joseph Haydn’s Early Symphonies, 2002, in prep.